Maastricht grew up around
the crossing of the Maas known to the Romans as the Mosae Trajectum. The bridge
at Maastricht formed a vital link in the Roman communication route from Gaul to
Germany built under Emperor Augustus (27 B.C. -14 A.D.). The river itself formed
a second communication route and a small trading settlement grew up around the
bridge. Before the second century A.D., Roman settlements in the provinces of
Gaul and Germania were not fortified and relied on the line of defences along
the Rhine for protection.
Around the year 402, the Roman troops withdrew to Italy and Maastricht fell under the rule of the Franks.
The decision to build defensive walls around Maastricht was made in 1229. A new stone bridge over the river Maas was completed in 1298.
Helpoort, the only city gate which is left from earliest city walls.
The population increased, trade boomed and the local leather and cloth industries prospered. About 1350 a new wall had to be built around the city, doubling the area enclosed and making new building possible.
De Reek water gate with ramparts, from the second medieval walls.
Between 1575 and 1825 mining activities made later fortifications around the city. One of these, Hoge Fronten, was developed in the years 1773-1777 and consists of bastions, dry trenches and mine tunnels.
Fort St.Pieter lies at the northern most point of Mount St.Pieter and was constructed in 1701-1702.
The St. Lambertus church was built in 1913-1916 and was the first church in Maastricht that was built outside the 14th-century city walls.
The first parts of church basilica of Our Lady’s were constructed right before the year 1000 and it is the oldest church in Maastricht.